I’m very gratified to announce that Black and White Magazine has just published portions of my “Deindustrialization Portfolio.” (June 2020 issue)
Posts from the ‘Boom and Bust’ Category
If you’re in the Boston area, I want to invite you to the opening of my exhibition, “Deindustrialization,” taking place Thursday evening, November 7 from 5 – 7 PM. The exhibition consists of twelve large scale portraits of textile mills from the Blackstone Valley region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. There will be an artist talk shortly after 5, mingling, and I believe free food! The opening will take place on the campus of Babson College, in the Hollister Gallery. Directions are here.
I want to thank BabsonArts and Associate Director Danielle Krcmar for making this all possible. This work was sponsored in part through a sabbatical grant from Babson College, for which I’m also most grateful. The work was printed on metal, an amazing process, by the wonderful folks at Blazing Editions . Working with them and more specifically Juliette Pascale was a joy. The results were stunning.
On another note, this exhibition is really a bit less of a celebration and more of a remembrance. The industrial revolution in the U.S. and indeed around the world, a revolution that is still going on in many places, brought with it a tremendous upsurge in wealth. At the same time, it brought with it massive sacrifices on the part of those who did the work and the communities in which these mills were built.
The raw materials for the cotton mills prior to the U.S. Civil War were farmed by enslaved workers kidnapped from Africa. Even after the Civil War the combination of share cropping arrangements and terror enforced by organizations like the KKK imposed the most severe hardships on those involved. Working conditions in the mills, though not as bad as one would find in England at the time were extremely harsh. The environmental degradation that occurred because of the mill industrial waste and the repeated damming of the rivers of the Blackstone Valley is still with us today.
At the same time, mill employment helped to create, at least in part, a melting pot, bringing people together from much of the world, into what became in many places a real community. Some of those communities still exist today as well. The boom and bust phenomena, a phenomena which continues unabated, is ultimately a harsh developmental path for our society.
Chris, my wife, remembers going to the Bernat Mill store in Uxbridge, Massachusetts to buy yarn. She certainly isn’t alone. If you were into knitting, that was what you did in this area. At one point, the mill was the third largest yarn mill in the U.S. (Note, the brand still exists and is in use by another yarn manufacturer, Bernat.) The mill itself had a long and exemplary career in the Blackstone River Valley. The first iteration of the Mill was built there in 1820 by John Capron. Why that location? Falling water. This is the current dam along the Mumford River that creates Capron Pond. It’s quite a lovely place with a very nice park, a nice place to think, or have a picnic.
Capron evolved to the Backman Uxbridge Worsted Company. They were the first manufacturers to utilize power loops in the U.S., a staggering change moving the industrial revolution forward. Their ability to engage in mass production doubtlessly lead to their ability to land contracts for the production of Civil War uniforms, World War One Khakis and World War Two U.S. Army uniforms. Those familiar with the U.S. Air Force dress blue uniform can take note, it was probably manufactured in that mill. That blue was chosen from the Backman Uxbridge catalogue.
As it did with so many large manufacturers in the Valley, the bust stormed into town in the form of international competition, technological change and an aging plant. In 1964 the assets were sold to the Bernat Company which refocused the mill on yarns. As manufacturing declined, the mill was repurposed over time in what was actually a very successful conversion. The class mill repurposing involves creating small spaces for retail, office and creative studios. They must have worked quite hard on the conversion because by the night of July 21, 2007, something like 400,000 square feet which had been devoted to manufacture was productively employed by numerous small businesses. Hundreds were employed there. Unfortunately, that night and for several subsequent days the mill burned.
Hundreds of firefighters fought the blaze. The complex was almost completely destroyed. Most of the businesses, worth millions, were lost. There are I would stress still a number of businesses remaining in a portion of the mill complex, but nothing like the number there prior to the fire.
The damage is still stunningly visible. Government on several levels planned to help but those plans seem to have floundered. This is of course not the first mill to burn in the Blackstone Valley. Many of those mills absorbed a century or more of a variety of chemicals. Some thought the fire at the Bernat Mill was almost inevitable. The bust of an economic surge, particularly one that lasted as long as large scale manufacturing in the Blackstone Valley is extraordinarily difficult to manage. These were very big businesses, not just for their time, but for any time.